DecisionCAMP and RuleML+RR will Meet Again in Luxembourg

March 16, 2018 2:56 PM
This article is about relationships between two different but closely related fields of the knowledge representation movement: Semantic Reasoning and Business Rules&Decisions Management

This September DecisionCAMP ( and RuleML+RR ( will be co-located again for the third time during the LuxLogAI-2018 ( summit in Luxembourg. These two events represent two different but closely related fields of the knowledge representation movement: Business Rules & Decisions Management and Semantic Reasoning. In this post I want to talk about relationships between these two fields and the events.

Probably not many people know that when OpenRules was founded in 2003 (, we initially positioned ourselves as a Semantic Web company. However, absence of practical results at that time forced us to limit our ambitions to Business Rules Management. As a result, we created an open source product ( that allowed business analysts to represent their business logic and then a rule engine effectively executed business rules – these capabilities quickly brought tangible values to our customers. Over the years, OpenRules, like other Business Rules and Decision Management vendors, was successfully used by many companies worldwide to build practical decision-making systems.

These days business analysts work in concert with developers to successfully develop so called “decision models” capable to solve their own business problems. In most cases they represent domain-specific knowledge by defining:

a) Business glossaries as a set of decision variables with their various characteristics
b) Business rules (such as decision tables) to represent the relationships between decision variables.

Then a rule engine executes the decision model to find an answer to a certain business question, e.g. calculate insurance premium or determine loan eligibility. The last 15 years resulted in serious progress in creating user-friendly interfaces for decision modeling. Now we even have the first standard “DMN - Decision Model and Notation” ( Probably the most important achievement is the fact that the objective to move control over business logic from IT to subject matter experts became a reality.

However, today’s decision models force human experts to describe almost ALL relationships between decision variables using business rules which may become very complex and include various calculation formulas, filters, iterations, etc. How to minimize human involvement?

Some good practical results already came from the integration of the Business Rules approach with:
a) Machine Learning (Predictive Analytics) to automatically generate rules based on the historical data
b) Decision Optimization (Prescriptive Analytics) to apply an optimization engine to explore relationships not covered by business rules and to find not one but multiple alternative solutions, and even optimal solutions.

However, to further automate decision making across multiple inter-connected decision models we need to move business and decision management to the Semantic Web territory and try to integrate the results produced in the both fields. There were interesting initial inter-communications between DecisionCAMP and RuleML+RR in 2016 and 2017 when people from both communities attended presentations during both events. I also would like to mention the following related papers:

And finally, I want to share my answer to the question asked during DecisionCAMP-2017 Q&A Panel: What is the next “killer” application for Decision Management?

“We probably should look for an answer at our co-located conference RuleML+RR where Semantic Web people already have created good reasoning tools. If we consider our decision models as ‘decision ontologies’ and apply similar reasoning tools to them, we would not need to force our customers to write specific rules that lead to calculation of insurance premiums or acceptance/rejection of loan applications. Having rules to define only relationships inside our inter-related decision models (ontologies), they (users) would only need to specify the goal (e.g. insurance premium), and then a Decision Reasoner will automatically calculate it for a particular insurance policy.”

Looking forward to more suggestions for a productive cooperation between experts in two related fields: Semantic Web and Business Rules&Decision Management.

RuleML+RR 2017 Report

March 15, 2018 9:54 AM
This article reports on the 1st RuleML+RR: International Joint Conference on Rules and Reasoning, which was held at Birkbeck, University of London in London, UK, during 12-15 July 2017.

In 2017 the two events RuleML and RR came together to form the 1st RuleML+RR: International Joint Conference on Rules and Reasoning held at Birkbeck, University of London, in London, UK, during 12-15 July. RuleML (International Web Rule Symposium) events have been ongoing since 2002, first as workshops until 2004 and then as conferences from then on, throughout Europe, US and Japan, and RR (Reasoning and Rule Systems) conferences have been ongoing since 2007, throughout Europe and US.

RuleML+ RR 2017 was co-located with several other events: the 13th Reasoning Web Summer School, which is a high-level educational initiative devoted to reasoning techniques related to the Semantic Web, Linked Data and Knowledge Graph application scenarios; DecisionCAMP, a renowned event in the field of Business Rules and Decision Management Technology; and BICOD, the 31st British International Conference on Databases, a venue for research papers on data management.

RuleML+ RR 2017 provided a rich programme of four tutorials, three keynote talks, and technical papers, together with several sub-events, including a Doctoral Consortium, which is an initiative to attract and promote student research in rules and reasoning, the 11th International Rule Challenge, providing competition among work in progress and new visionary ideas concerning innovative rule-oriented applications, an Industry Track as a forum for all private and public sectors of industry and business to present, discuss, and propose potential rule-based applications, as well as a highly popular Poster session.

The four tutorials were:

  • Decision Modeling with DMN and OpenRules, by Jacob Feldman (Open Rules, Inc., US)
  • How to do it with LPS (Logic-Based Production System, by Robert Kowalski, Fariba Sadri (Imperial College London, UK), and Miguel Calejo (InterProlog Consulting)
  • Logic-Based Rule Learning for the Web of Data, by Francesca A. Lisi (University of Bari, Italy)
  • Rulelog: Highly Expressive Semantic Rules with Scalable Deep Reasoning, by Benjamin Grosof (Accenture, US), Michael Kifer, and Paul Fodor (Stony Brook University, NY, US)

The three keynote presenters and talks were:

The first of these, by Elena Baralis, was a joint BICOD keynote talk. In addition the two events shared a session of two research papers. In total the conference included 14 research papers, selected from 38 submissions, with presentations divided into sessions on Rules and Databases, Rules and Description Logics, Applications of Rules, and Rules and Logic Programming.

The conference also shared an industry invited talk with DecisionCAMP:
Eric Mazeran, IBM, US, presenting “Machine Learning, Optimization and Rules: Time for Agility and Convergences”.

The Doctoral Consortium (DC) consisted of six papers, one of which, the winner of the DC best paper award, was presented as a full research paper and published in the Springer conference proceedings.

The Rule Challenge consisted of 5 presentations and demos, in diverse areas, such as traffic management, health insurance, diabetes counselling support, anomaly detection, and translation from (controlled) English to rules. The event also had the benefit of an invited presentation and demo by Keith Clark from Imperial College London, UK, on Concurrent Multi-tasking Robotic Agent Programming in TeleoR. In the Standards session, Harold Boley presented on OASIS LegalRuleML and perspectival knowledge in PSOA RuleML 1.0.

The official conference Dinner was held at the Royal Society. One of the highlights of the conference was the after dinner speech given by Bob Kowalski, from Imperial College London, entitled “Logic and AI – The Last 50 Years”. In this, Bob gave a fascinating insightful history of logic and AI, from 1967 to the present day, sketching novel approaches to ongoing challenges, with many wonderful anecdotes that only a person deeply involved in all the many developments of this history can give.

The conference and its associated events were well-attended, with a total of 140 delegates registered, including 70 RuleML+RR participants.

The conference and its sub-events produced several winners:

  • The winners of the RuleML+RR Best Paper award were: Diego Calvanese, Marlon Dumas, Fabrizio Maria Maggi and Marco Montali, for the paper entitled “Semantic DMN: Formalizing Decision Models with Domain Knowledge”.
  • The winner of the RuleML+RR Best Doctoral Consortium Paper award was: Dimitra Zografistou, for the paper entitled “ArgQL: A Declarative Language for Querying Argumentative Dialogues”.
  • The winners of the RuleML+RR Best Rule Challenge Paper were: Silvie Spreeuwenberg and Rolf Krikke, for the paper and demo entitled “Development of the rule based approach to traffic management by the Dutch road authorities”.
  • The winners of the RuleML+RR Best Poster award were: Francesca Alessandra Lisi, Daria Stepanova, for the poster entitled “Combining Rule Learning and Nonmonotonic Reasoning for Link Prediction in Knowledge Graphs”.

We would like to thank our sponsors, whose contributions helped us to cover the costs of student participants and the keynote speakers. We would also like to thank all the people who have contributed to the success of this year’s special RuleML+RR 2017 and co-located events, including all the chairs, PC members, authors, speakers, and participants. Thanks are also due to the publisher, Springer, for their cooperation in editing and publishing the conference proceedings, and to the CEUR voluntary organisation for providing the facility to publish the proceedings of the conference sub-events.

The participants of this 1st Int'l Joint Conference were able to build a larger and stronger RuleML+RR community. The 2nd Int'l Joint Conference on Rules and Reasoning is planned as part of LuxLogAI 2018 in Luxembourg, a co-location including GCAI 2018 and DecisionCAMP 2018 (both Sep 17-19), RuleML+RR 2018 (Sep 18-21), and the Reasoning Web Summer School 2018 (Sep 22-26).

Prerelease of PSOA RuleML 1.0 and Release of PSOATransRun 1.3

December 11, 2017 2:42 PM

This is a prerelease of PSOA RuleML 1.0, whose schemas for XML serialization need to be finished, as well as the release of PSOATransRun 1.3, which executes PSOA RuleML 1.0's finished presentation syntax. The arXiv-maintained paper Perspectival Knowledge in PSOA RuleML: Representation, Model Theory, and Translation introduces both the PSOA RuleML 1.0 language and the PSOATransRun 1.3 system. In PSOA RuleML, a predicate application (atom) can have an Object IDentifier (OID) and descriptors that may be positional arguments (tuples) or attribute-value pairs (slots). PSOA RuleML 1.0 specifies for each descriptor whether it is to be interpreted under the perspective of the predicate in whose scope it occurs. This perspectivity dimension refines the space between oidless, positional atoms (relationships) and oidful, slotted atoms (frames): While relationships use only a predicate-scope-sensitive (predicate-dependent) tuple and frames use only predicate-scope-insensitive (predicate-independent) slots, PSOA RuleML 1.0 uses a systematics of orthogonal constructs also permitting atoms with (predicate-)independent tuples and atoms with (predicate-)dependent slots. A slot attribute can thus have different values depending on the predicate. The open-source PSOATransRun 1.3 system realizes PSOA RuleML 1.0 by a translator to runtime predicates, including for dependent tuples (prdtupterm) and slots (prdsloterm).

Announcing the Logical Contracts Server

November 14, 2017 6:25 PM
The Logical Contracts Server incorporates extensions of LPS (Logic Production System) to facilitate deployment of smart contracts. Its website contains a link to a preliminary version, now available for trial. It also contains a short, three minute video, illustrating an application to the paper-rock-scissor game, with an interface to the Ethereum blockchain.
Logical Contracts is an upcoming spinoff, which builds upon decades of research at Imperial College London in AI, logic programming, the event calculus and legal reasoning. The Logical Contracts Server extends the logic and computer language LPS with web services and other features, to facilitate the development of self-executing contracts. It includes:

· Logic programs, which serve as constitutive rules, defining abstract legal concepts in terms of raw facts. They are like the beliefs of an intelligent agent.
· Reactive or regulatory rules, which prescribe and prohibit actions and states of affairs. They are like an agent’s goals.
· Domain-dependent causal laws, which define the effects of actions and external events on states of affairs. Together with the logic programs, they specify the space of candidate models of the world.

Logical contracts represented in LPS have both a declarative, logical interpretation and an imperative, computational implementation. In their logical interpretation, they specify goals that must be satisfied by executing actions to generate a model that makes the goals true. In their computational implementation, they execute programs in a manner that resembles the agent cycle of BDI (Belief Desire Intention) agent programming languages.

The basic ontology of LPS builds upon that of the event calculus, but without frame axioms, which are computationally infeasible for large applications. However, the event calculus ontology of LPS facilitates the representation of natural language notions of time, events and states of affairs. The Logical Contracts Server exploits this link with natural language by including a preliminary Formal English syntax. More refined improvements of the syntax are under development.

Cfp: RADIO AI 2018: An Invitation to Talk About Your Work, Ideas, Thoughts

September 4, 2017 1:14 AM
RADIO AI - Call for Participation This invitation is extended across all the subfields of AI. The purpose of the RADIO AI project is to help educate the public and other professions about AI, with a crowd sourced collective of podcasts by people who work on AI. Submit podcasts by email to Submissions are in .mp3 or .wav. See for examples.

We hope to hear from many individuals who are passionate about their work, and who wish to counter the AI fear by educating the public with lighthearted informative podcasts. Many of the people who are creating the fear of AI do not actually work in AI.

Our goal is to to create an easy to access collective of  short informative lectures by the people who work in AI - academia, business, finance, healthcare, inventors, and programmers. The lectures can be as short as 3 minutes or as long as 10.  Some of you might wish to do a series of podcasts.  


Intent to submit November 1, 2017

Draft podcasts due: Dec. 12, 2017

Final podcasts due: Jan 12, 2017

Audience: Please gage the audience as either teenage or in another field of study that is non-technical.

Travel/hotel:   There is no travel or hotel reservation required. All you need is some peace and quiet, a microphone and your inspired thinking.

Contact: Dr. C. Mason


There are 2 example podcasts on the site       We can upload your podcast as soon as it is received and reviewed.Topics related to AI include - history of AI, rule based systems, software agents, robots, machine learning,  overview of AI, and applications - healthcare, legal, transportation, energy, environment, etc.  All topics related to AI are welcome.  Also, if you're working in this field and are aware of the social changes that will or already havebeen taking place, we welcome your insights for the public.  We hope this will be fun for you and that by doing this, it will make you happy. It will also be a service to ourselves and the public.


MOdeling LAnguages: The Portal on Models in Software Engineering

August 14, 2017 11:43 AM

Jordi Cabot delivered a very relevant and interesting keynote, The Secret Life of Rules in Software Engineering, at RuleML+RR 2017. His arguments for the desideratum that "rules must become first-class citizens in any software development project" are completely convincing in the RuleML+RR community and should increasingly appeal to (new?) people in SE. Likewise, most RuleML and RR colleagues would probably subscribe to the step-wise-transformation approach from model/spec to code that he explained. He also sketched how schema discovery over big data can infer explicit rules for use in data processing, Moreover, he emphasized the role of OCL in constraint/rule-based modeling, referring to a paper integrating OCL, RuleML and SWRL from the current community.

Jordi is maintaining the portal MOdeling LAnguages, which promotes the use of (rule-based) software models and engineering principles in software engineering. We should use the opportunity of Jordi’s keynote and portal for a fresh look into OCL and into RuleML's connections to it (including for the object-relational PSOA RuleML). The discussion between the communities has started at RuleML+RR 2017 in London. Please contribute to it, both on "MOdeling LAnguages" and "RuleML Blog & Social Mediazine".

Logic and AI – The Last 50 Years, Bob Kowalski, RuleMLRR2017

August 13, 2017 10:46 AM
A great talk about the origins and history of logic programming as well as its actual research challenges.

Bob Kowalski ( was a research fellow at the University of Edinburgh (1970–75) and has been at Imperial College London since 1975, attaining a chair in Computational logic in 1982 and becoming Emeritus Professor in 1999.

More at:

RuleML+RR2017: Call for Participation

July 3, 2017 9:42 AM
2017: International Joint Conference on Rules and Reasoning London 12-15 July 2017, the leading international joint conference in the field of rule-based reasoning, from foundations to technologies to applications.

The full program can be seen at

Keynotes and tutorial by academic and industrial experts. Conference dinner booked at the Royal Society.

Register at or at the door on Tuesday 11 July 2017 3-9 pm at Birkbeck, University of London, room MAL (main Building basement) B04. Meet and Greet, and wine and nibbles also on Tuesday 11 July 2017 3-9 pm in the same room.

Final Deadline: Work-in-Progress POSTERS: delegates (e.g., from industry) have the opportunity of presenting related Work-in-Progress Posters, optionally coming with demos, during the poster session, by sending PDFized poster files to Fariba Sadri by July 3rd, 2017, 3PM UK Time.

Call for Applications: The 13th Reasoning Web Summer School (RW 2017)

June 26, 2017 9:53 AM
The summer school takes place in London, U.K., July 7-11, 2017 and it is co-located with, DecisionCamp 2017, 11th International Rule Challenge

The purpose of the Reasoning Web Summer School is to disseminate recent advances on reasoning techniques which are of particular interest to Semantic Web and Linked Data applications. The school is primarily intended for postgraduate (PhD or MSc) students, postdocs, young researchers, and senior researchers wishing to learn about Reasoning on the Semantic Web and related issues. In 2017, the theme of the school is:

"Semantic Interoperability on the Web"

As in the previous years, lectures in the summer school will be given by a distinguished group of expert lecturers. Most lecturers will also be present for the duration of the school to interact and establish contacts with the students.

The summer school is co-located with RuleML+RR, a conference that joins the well-known RuleML and RR event series, DecisionCAMP 2017, and the 11th International Rule Challenge, hence, there will be a great opportunity for students to also attend some major events in the area. In addition, RuleML+RR will also include a Doctoral Consortium and students of RW are particularly encouraged to also apply to the Doctoral consortium of RuleML+RR.

Participants to the school will be delivered on request a certificate of attendance indicating the number of hours of lectures. With this certificate, some institutions may assign official credits for the PhD program.


  • Andrea Calì (Birkbeck University of London, U.K.) "Ontology querying: Datalog strikes back"
  • Thomas Eiter (Technical University of Wien, Austria) "Answer Set Programming with External Source Access"
  • Thomas Lukasiewicz (University of Oxford, U.K.) "Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web"
  • Marco Montali (Free University of Bolzano/Bozen, Italy) "Ontology-based Data Access for Log Extraction in Process Mining"
  • Axel Polleres (Vienna University of Economics & Business, Austria) "Challenges for Semantic Data Integration on the Web of Open Data"
  • Marie-Christine Rousset (University Grenoble-Alpes, Institut Universitaire de France) "Datalog revisited for reasoning in Linked Data"
  • Torsten Schaub (University of Potsdam, Germany and Inria, Bretagne Atlantique, Rennes, France) "A Tutorial on Hybrid Answer Set Solving"
  • Juan Sequeda (Capsenta, USA) "Integrating Relational Databases with the Semantic Web"
  • Giorgos Stamou (National Technical University of Athens, Greece) "Ontological query answering over semantic data"


A software agent controlling 2 robots arms in co-operating concurrent tasks

June 23, 2017 10:23 AM
Keith Leonard Clark ( is a Professor of Computer Science at Imperial College London, England. He earned a Ph.D. in 1980 from Queen Mary, University of London and since 1979, Keith Clark has had an academic position in the Department of Computing, Imperial College where he has been Professor of Computational Logic since 1987.

Abstract: The agent concurrently builds several different block towers as separate tasks. Each executes the same TeleoR rule program, and interacts with the same graphical Python simulator. The blocks are distributed over 3 tables, and each arm can only reach two tables, a home table and a shared table. The arms and tables are resources that are fairly shared by the tasks, without interference between tasks, without starvation of any task, and without deadlock. Frequently both arms are used in parallel.

The agent knows what a tower of blocks is, as it can do reasoning from percept facts sent to it from the simulator using relation defining rules in an LP+FP language QuLog. The percepts inform the agent if a block is directly on top of another block, or on a particular table, or held by one of the arms. Percept updates are sent by the simulator whenever blocks are moved, either by a simulated robotic arm controlled by the agent, or by me using the simulator’s GUI. The percepts are stored in the agent’s Belief Store, shared by all the tasks.

TeleoR programs are robust and opportunistic, as will be shown in the demo. If I undo a partially built tower the task T building it will try to reconstruct it as soon as it can acquire the arm and table resources needed. It I help, putting the next needed block B on T's partial tower, T will skip that action. It will instead uncover and place the next block B’ on top of B. Or it will pause if its tower is now complete. It will spring back into life if blocks are moved from that tower.

The tasks also try to help each other, making use of facts in the Belief Store that record the list of blocks of each tower building task. When clearing blocks on top of the next block B needed for its tower, a task T will place a removed block RB that will later be needed by another task OT, including T itself, in order to facilitate OT’s pickup of RB. If possible, T will place RB on a table, which T currently has as an acquired resource, so that OT can move RB to its destination partial tower using just one arm, and without the need to acquire the shared table as a resource. Minimising the number of times tasks need to use the shared table resource, maximises the parallel use of the arms. It therefore reduces the overall time needed to build all the towers.

The tasks also try to help each other, making use of facts in the Belief Store that record the list of blocks of each tower building task. When clearing blocks on top of the next block B needed for its tower, a task T will place a removed block RB that will later be needed by another task OT, including T itself, in order to facilitate OT’s pickup of RB. If possible, T will place RB on a table, which T currently has as an acquired resource, so that OT can move RB to its destination partial tower using just one arm, and without the need to acquire the shared table as a resource. Minimising the number of times tasks need to use the shared table resource, maximises the parallel use of the arms. It therefore reduces the overall time needed to build all the towers.

The demo will finish with a short video of a Baxter two armed robot concurrently building two real block towers with both help and hindrance from a person. The robot’s arms are moved in parallel whenever this can be done without risk of their clashing over a shared table area.

Register at RuleML+RR 2017